Purpose: To determine whether near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements of muscle mitochondrial function could detect the expected differences between endurance-trained athletes (n = 8) and inactive subjects (n = 8). Methods: Muscle oxygen consumption (mV̇O2) of the vastus lateralis was measured with continuous-wave NIRS using transient arterial occlusions. The recovery rate of mV̇O2 after electrical stimulation was fit to an exponential curve, with the time constant (T C) used as an index of mitochondrial capacity. Whole-body peak oxygen uptake was determined by indirect calorimetry during a continuous ramp protocol on a cycle ergometer. Results: Whole-body peak oxygen uptake values for endurance-trained and inactive controls were 73.5 ± 9.1 and 33.7 ± 5.9 mL˙kg-1˙min-1, respectively (P < 0.001). The recovery rates of mV̇O2 after exercise for endurance training were 18.4 ± 3.2 and 18.8 ± 2.5 s, whereas those for inactive controls were 32.4 ± 5.2 and 34.9 ± 5.9 s for the shallow and deep channels, respectively (P < 0.001 for comparison between groups). Resting mV̇O2 was 0.52%˙s-1 ± 0.22%˙s-1 for endurance athletes and 0.77%˙s -1 ± 0.82%˙s-1 for inactive controls (P = 0.42). Conclusions: The recovery rates of mV̇O2 after exercise in endurance athletes were almost twofold faster than inactive subjects measured with NIRS, consistent with previous studies using muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our results support the use of NIRS measurements of the recovery of oxygen consumption to assess muscle oxidative capacity. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine.