Brain-computer interfaces and wearable neurotechnologies are now used to measure real-time neural and physiologic signals from the human body and hold immense potential for advancements in medical diagnostics, prevention, and intervention. Given the future role that wearable neurotechnologies will likely serve in the health sector, a critical state-of-the-art assessment is necessary to gain a better understanding of their current strengths and limitations. In this chapter we present wearable electroencephalography systems that reflect groundbreaking innovations and improvements in real-time data collection and health monitoring. We focus on specifications reflecting technical advantages and disadvantages, discuss their use in fundamental and clinical research, their current applications, limitations, and future directions. While many methodological and ethical challenges remain, these systems host the potential to facilitate large-scale data collection far beyond the reach of traditional research laboratory settings.