The functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) technology is an optical imaging technology that applies near-infrared light to measure the oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration alteration in cortical brain structures. It has the ability to directly measure changes in the blood oxygen level of the high temporal resolution associated with neural activation. Thus, it has been utilized in different neurological diseases, such as epilepsy, stroke, and Parkinson. The work of this paper will focus on the application of the fNIRS in the three neurological diseases and the principle of fNIRS. Moreover, the difficulties and challenges that the technology is currently experiencing have been discussed.