Hosseinzadeh, M, Andersen, OK, Arendt-Nielsen, L, Samani, A, Kamavuako, EN, and Madeleine, P. Adaptation of local muscle blood flow and surface electromyography to repeated bouts of eccentric exercise. J Strength Cond Res 29(4): 1017-1026, 2015 - The aim of this randomized controlled crossover study was to investigate the effect of a bout of unaccustomed eccentric exercise (ECC) followed by a consecutive bout of the same intensity on local muscle blood flow, amplitude, and frequency of the electromyographic (EMG) signal from the exercised tibialis anterior muscle. Sixteen healthy male participants (age, 25.7 (0.6) years; body mass index 24.8 (1) kg˙m -2) participated in this study. Two identical bouts of high-intensity ECC were performed on the tibialis anterior muscle 7 days apart. Control sessions involving no exercise were performed 4 weeks either before or after the exercise sessions. Changes in local total blood flow [$Δ$tHb], EMG root mean square, and median power frequency were recorded during isometric maximum voluntary contraction of ankle dorsiflexion. Measurements were performed before, immediately after, and the day after both ECCs (ECC1 and ECC2). The participants rested quietly in a chair in the control session. Eccentric exercise 1 led to a significant decrease in [$Δ$tHb] on the day after (p ≤ 0.05), whereas ECC2 did not. Median power frequency decreased significantly in ECC2 compared with ECC1 (p < 0.01). Root mean square was unchanged in all the instants. The present study showed that adaptation is depicted in the local muscle blood flow and the frequency contents of the EMG after an unaccustomed ECC inducing muscle soreness. These alterations provide a potential mechanism for a rapid adaptation, which decreases susceptibility of the muscle to develop further soreness in the subsequent ECC bout.