Background: Cerebral vasculopathy can induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion leading to stroke in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and is treated by blood exchange transfusion (BET). However, no prospective clinical study has demonstrated the benefit of BET in adults with SCD and cerebral vasculopathy. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a recent non-invasive method complementary to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We evaluated cerebral perfusion using NIRS during erythracytapheresis in patients with SCD with and without steno-occlusive arterial disease. Methods: We conducted a monocentric, prospective study in 16 adults with SCD undergoing erythracytapheresis in 2014. Among them, 10 had cerebral steno-occlusive arterial disease. NIRS measured the relative amounts of oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb), deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb) and total hemoglobin (Total Hb) in brain tissue and in muscle. Results: In cerebral hemispheres associated with steno-occlusive arterial disease, we observed a significant increase of OxyHb and Total Hb during BET, without modification of DeoxyHb. Conclusion: Using NIRS during BET showed that BET improves cerebral perfusion in adult patients with SCD with cerebral vasculopathy.