Key points: Blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFR-RE) is capable of inducing comparable adaptations to traditional resistance exercise (RE), despite a lower total exercise volume. It has been suggested that an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may be involved in this response; however, oxygen partial pressure (PO2) is reduced during BFR-RE, and the influence of PO2 on mitochondrial redox balance remains poorly understood. In human skeletal muscle tissue, we demonstrate that both maximal and submaximal mitochondrial ROS emission rates are acutely decreased 2 h following BFR-RE, but not RE, occurring along with a reduction in tissue oxygenation during BFR-RE. We further suggest that PO2 is involved in this response because an in vitro analysis revealed that reducing PO2 dramatically decreased mitochondrial ROS emissions and electron leak to ROS. Altogether, these data indicate that mitochondrial ROS emission rates are attenuated following BFR-RE, and such a response is likely influenced by reductions in PO2. Abstract: Low-load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFR-RE) training has been proposed to induce comparable adaptations to traditional resistance exercise (RE) training, however, the acute signalling events remain unknown. Although a suggested mechanism of BFR-RE is an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxygen partial pressure (PO2) is reduced during BFR-RE, and the influence of O2 tension on mitochondrial redox balance remains ambiguous. We therefore aimed to determine whether skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics were altered following an acute bout of BFR-RE or RE, and to further examine the role of PO2 in this response. Accordingly, muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 males at rest and 2 h after performing three sets of single-leg squats (RE or BFR-RE) to failure at 30% one-repetition maximum. We determined that mitochondrial respiratory capacity and ADP sensitivity were not altered in response to RE or BFR-RE. Although maximal (succinate) and submaximal (non-saturating ADP) mitochondrial ROS emission rates were unchanged following RE, BFR-RE attenuated these responses by ∼30% compared to pre-exercise, occurring along with a reduction in skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation during BFR-RE (P < 0.01 vs. RE). In a separate cohort of participants, evaluation of mitochondrial bioenergetics in vitro revealed that mild O2 restriction (50 µm) dramatically attenuated maximal (∼4-fold) and submaximal (∼50-fold) mitochondrial ROS emission rates and the fraction of electron leak to ROS compared to room air (200 µm). Combined, these data demonstrate that mitochondrial ROS emissions are attenuated following BFR-RE, a response which may be mediated by a reduction in skeletal muscle PO2.