The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of resting blood flow, resting oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial capacity in skeletal muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We also determined the influence of 2 exercise modalities (ergometer and rubber exercise bands) on the NIRS measurements. Fifteen young, healthy participants (5 female, 10 male) were tested on 2 nonconsecutive occasions within an 8-day period. The NIRS device was placed on the medial gastrocnemius. Venous and arterial occlusions were performed to obtain blood flow and oxygen consumption. A series of repeated arterial occlusions was used to measure the recovery kinetics of muscle oxygen consumption after$∼$7-10 s of voluntary plantar flexion exercise. Resting blood flow had mean coefficients of variation (CV) of 42% and 38% for bands and ergometer, respectively, and resting metabolism had mean CVs of 17% and 12% for bands and ergometer, respectively. The recovery time constant of oxygen consumption (day 1 bands and ergometer: 23.2 ± 3.7 s, 27.6 ± 6.5 s, respectively; day 2 bands and ergometer: 25.5 ± 5.4 s, 25.0 ± 4.9 s, respectively) had mean CVs of 10% and 11% for bands and ergometer, respectively. We conclude that measurements of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial capacity using NIRS can be obtained with good reproducibility.